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媒体丨披着华丽外衣的第三代毒品正渗入中国
发布时间:2019年07月26日

原文来源:2019年7月23日 Golbal Times 原作者:胡雨薇 编译:司法鉴定科学研究院

“包装精美的巧克力和小饼干令人垂涎,却很难让人想象其真身是毒品。以新精神活性物质为代表的第三代毒品如今正通过一种更具欺骗性的形式诱惑着中国的年轻人们。这类毒品大部分倾向于来?#38498;?#22806;,特别是对毒药物管制在法律上有短板的国家。”专家表示。

新精神活性物?#26102;?#32852;合国毒品与犯罪办公室定义为:未被国?#24335;?#27602;公约《1961年麻醉品单一公约》和《1971年精神药物公约》列管,但存在滥用并会对公众健康带来威胁的物质。

“为了逃避打击和混淆视听,这些走私而来的物质通常伪装成让人难以发现的奶茶粉、跳跳糖和巧克力等零食。而对于已经在中国被列管的毒药物,违法分子们对其化学分子结构进行调整,构成新的化学合成物,使其通过相关测试。”司法鉴定科学研究院法医毒物化学研究室副主任法医师陈航告诉环球时报记者。

案件表明,近年来制销新精神活性物质的犯罪案件数量正在上升,而大部分嫌犯是年轻人,其中还包括高学历的科研工作者,他们往往具备调整此类物质化学分子结构的能力。

在这些高学历科研工作者中,?#34892;?#20154;是?#23460;?#20026;之,但大部分却是被冠以科研之名的商业项?#31185;?#39575;,并不知他们已被人利用。


新渠道

今年6月,据上海海关称,一?#32622;?#20026;氟硝西泮的日本处方药已然成为毒品走私贩的新宠,因为该药物与酒精一起服用时具有类似或更强的兴奋和致幻作用,因此毒贩们将目标瞄准在了这种药物上。该案抓获犯罪团伙成员13人,查获氟硝西泮367片。

今年年初以来,上海海关共查获13起日本国际包裹走私毒品案,缴获氟硝西泮275.49克。

上海海关表示,美国、加拿大、日本等发达国家已成为中国毒品走私的主要来源国。此外,新型毒品还以各种方式进行伪装。一些走私毒贩把“摇头丸”毒品变成卡通形状的“糖果?#20445;?#32780;另一些人则?#30740;?#31934;神药物伪装成常规的保健品,如维生素和钙片,以迷惑海关官员。


不可逆转的危害

“许多新精神活性物?#26102;群?#27931;因和吗啡等现有毒品毒性更大,”陈航表示,“新精神活性物质没有经过临床安全测试。人们对这些毒药物的不良健康影响和社会危害知之甚少,这给?#31070;?#30340;预防和治疗带来了相当大的挑?#20581;!?/p>

?#26696;?#25454;已发表的文献,新精神活性物?#31034;?#26377;极高的致死率,”陈航解释说,“长期使用这些物质会损害人体中枢神经系?#24120;?#29978;至会?#28304;?#33041;中的海马体?#22270;?#24518;回路等造成不可逆转的损害。”

“对于青少年人群来说,此类风险更甚。新精神活性物质可以导致不同程?#32676;?#31867;型的精神障碍,例如行为能力失控,更甚则可以导致他们忘却道德的?#38469;?#23454;施暴力犯罪和性侵犯。”司法鉴定科学研究院法医毒物化学研究室主任刘伟告诉环球时报记者。


新密码

“过去的两年里,含有新精神活性物质的电子烟在全球范围内流行了起来。?#22270;?#21040;司法鉴定科学研究院的电子?#36867;?#24448;往被鉴定出含有高纯度的合成大麻素。此类案件在暑假期间很常见,这些毒药物流入的增加在一定程度上受到归国留学生的影响。”刘伟表示。

毒品制造商们一旦发现某种毒品受到管制,他们会迅速开发出新的未被列管的精神活性物质。陈航表示,“这些新的化学合成物的成分往往是未知的,我们必须像破解密码那样破译其中的成分。”

“新型毒品的筛查和兴起是一场猫抓老鼠的游戏,但是猫的速度正在越来越快。”陈航说。

尽管在新精神活性物质的防控方面,中国仍在努力加大监管力度,但中国的新精神活性物质司法鉴定?#38469;?#22312;国际上已列于第一梯队。目前,中国还在许多城?#32961;?#29992;了基于废水的流行病学?#38469;酰?#22312;比利时和德国等许多国家普遍使用),该?#38469;?#36890;过污水数据的分析来侦测毒药物的使?#20204;?#20917;。

陈航表示,“中国还与发达国家合作?#28304;?#20351;对毒药物的鉴别和管控的手段更加多元化。”

今年4月,中国对芬太尼类物质实施整类列管,矛?#20998;?#25351;合成阿片类这一致死?#39318;?#39640;的物质,加大力度、严厉打击其非法制造、分销和走?#20581;?/p>


原文:

Deceptively packaged 3rd generation drugs infiltrate China

By Hu Yuwei Source:Global Times Published: 2019/7/23 19:03:40

Beautifully packaged chocolates and cookies are so appetizing that you wouldn't think they were drugs. The third-generation of drugs represented by new psychoactive substances (NPS) is now attracting many Chinese youngsters in a more deceptive way. They tend to come mostly from overseas, especially from countries with less stringent drug control laws, said experts.

New psychoactive substances are defined by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime as "substances of abuse, either in a pure form or a preparation, that are not controlled by the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs or the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, but which may pose a public health threat."

In order to escape the crackdown and to confuse the masses, the smuggled substances are commonly hidden in snacks, such as milk tea powder, popping candy and chocolate, making them difficult to discover. For substances which are already regulated in China, suspects can change their molecular structure of to have the item pass testing, Chen Hang, deputy director of the toxicology chemistry laboratory at the Academy of Forensic Science (AFS), told the Global Times.

According to the cases Chen has been exposed to, crimes including producing and selling NPS have been rising in recent years. Most of the suspects are young people, including many highly educated scientific researchers who have the ability to conduct chemical transformations of drugs.

Some commit crimes knowingly, while others chemically alter molecular structures in the name of corporate scientific projects without knowing their real applications.


New Channels

A Japanese prescription drug has become a new favorite of drug dealers, according to Shanghai customs in June. The prescription drug, flurazepam, is targeted by smugglers who seek to smuggle it into China because of its similar or stronger excitatory and hallucinogenic effects when being taken with alcohol. Thirteen gang members have been arrested and 367 flurazepam tablets seized.

Since the beginning of this year, Shanghai customs has detected 13 cases of drug smuggling in international parcels sent from Japan, and has seized a total of 275.49 grams of flurazepam.?

Shanghai customs noted that the US, Canada, Japan and other developed countries have become major sources of drugs smuggled into China. In addition, the new drugs are disguised in various ways. Some smugglers turn ecstasy into cartoon-shaped "candies," while others disguise new psychotropic drugs as routine health care products such as vitamins and calcium tablets to confusing customs officers.


Irreversible Harm

Many new psychoactive substances are more toxic than established drugs such as heroin and morphine, said Chen. "NPS has not been tested for clinical safety. Little is known about the adverse health effects and social harm they pose, resulting in a considerable challenge for addiction prevention and treatment."

According to published literature, NPS are highly lethal. Long-term use of these substances can damage the central nervous system and even cause irreversible damage to the hippocampus and memory circuits, Chen elaborated.

For adolescents, the risks can double. NPS abuse may lead to different levels and types of mental disorders, leading to uncontrollable behaviors or, more seriously, can lead people to forget their morals and commit violence or sexual assault, Liu Wei, director of the forensic toxicology laboratory at the AFS, told the Global Times.


A new code

Liu said that NPS contained in e-cigarettes has been epidemic around the world for the past two years. The e-cigarette oil submitted to AFS for testing often contains high-purity synthetic cannabinoids. Such cases are frequent during the summer holidays, and the increased flow of drugs is partly driven by returning overseas students, according to Liu.

To evade discovery, drug-makers will quickly develop new, non-listed psychoactive substances once a certain strain is found to be under control. "The compositions of the new compounds they have created are relatively unknown, so it's like we have to crack a code to decipher the ingredients," Chen told the Global Times.

The emergence and screening of new drugs is a cat-and-mouse game, but the speed of the cat has become faster and faster, Chen said.

China is among international leaders in NPS identification technology despite the surveillance efforts needing to be stepped-up further to prevent an increased domestic spread. China has also adopted the wastewater-based epidemiology technology - commonly used in many countries such as Belgium and Germany - in many cities to detect drug use by analyzing sewage data.

It is also cooperating with developed countries in diversifying forms of drug recognition and control, Chen noted.

China controlled all fentanyl-related analogs in April, in a move that aims to step up efforts to stringently combat the illegal manufacturing, distribution and smuggling of the world's most lethal synthetic opioid.

Newspaper headline: Coded new drugs


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